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The anatomy of the foot 

The foot skeleton consists of 28 bones.
The bones of the foot can be divided into the following groups: Tarsal bones, metatarsals and phalanxes. 20 muscles and over 114 tendons and ligaments provide the necessary mobility and stability of the bones to each other.
A fine network of nerves and blood vessels supplies the superficial and deeper muscles above and below the foot.

The foot arch 

The foot has a longitudinal and a transverse arch. The arches of the foot are supported by transverse muscles and held upright by tendons. Therefore, the body weight is mainly supported by the three points of the heel, the first and the fifth base joint of the big toe.

Bracing of the longitudinal arch:

  • plantar aponeurosis
  • ligamentum plantare longum
  • musculus flexor hallucis longus
  • foot's short muscle group

Bracing of the transverse arch:

  • musculus tibialis posterior
  • musculus peronaeus profundus


Together they 'wrap around' the middle foot like a stirrup from the inside and outside and hold the arch up.


Load through pressure
Longitudinal arch
Transverse arch

Function of the Arch of the Foot


The foot is the first point of contact between you and the earth. With a healthy foot in normal position, the transverse and longitudinal foot arches perform an important cushioning function. The entire body weight must be supported by the foot when walking, and at the same time the peak loads on joints such as the knee, hip and spine must be reduced. To do this, the arches of the feet sink when they make contact with the ground with each step due to the load experienced and rebuild through muscle tension.


Biomechanics and cycling


As the arches of the foot descend, the foot fatigues and direct power transmission to the pedals is reduced. Excessive movement of the foot in the cycling shoe can lead to nerve and vascular constriction, resulting in paresthesias or numbness.

Pedals for any Bike

Insoles for every foot type